Workshops

Boost Your Electronics Assembly Processes With Our Workshops

SMT Assembly “Boot Camp”

Course Instructor: Phil Zarrow
Duration: Two Days

Description of the Course

The SMT Electronics Assembly Class is a practical overview of the many different processes and materials used in through hole and surface mount technologies (SMT). It is a focused two-day long workshop, which provides students with the opportunity to learn and understand the processes, equipment, and materials used in today’s manufacturing of electronic assemblies. It is taught by an experienced and knowledgeable instructor who has worked in a variety of electronics manufacturing-related fields.

Combining a lecture, discussion, and some videos, this electronic assembly basic training workshop was designed to give a very comprehensive and complete “immersion” into SMT and mixed technology PCB assembly. People who are new to the field, as well as somewhat experienced personnel who want to “fill in the gaps,” have found this workshop to be a perfect solution.

As it runs only two days, it is extensive (and non-superfluous) without taking people “out of the shop” for an extended period of time: learn, absorb, and take that knowledge back to the manufacturing floor.

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Course Outline

Day One: Introduction – “It’s What We Do”

  • PCB Fabrication Overview
    • Circuit Board Fabrication Overview
    • Surface Finish
    • Legend
  • SMT Assembly Materials
    Solder Paste

    • Solder Paste (Flux and Alloy)
    • Solder Paste Characteristics
    • Solder Paste Considerations
    • Adhesives
  • Stencil Fabrication and Design
    • Stencil Components
    • Stencil Fabrication and Characteristics (Laser Cut, Electroplating, and Nano-Coating)
    • Fiducials
    • Aperture Design Rules
    • Special Apertures
  • SMT Assembly Processes and Equipment
    Solder Paste Printing and Deposition

    • Solder Paste (Composition and Attributes)
    • Solder Deposition Basics
    • Process Parameters, Control, and Effects
    • Process Considerations
    • Process Defect Recognition and Avoidance
    • Solder Jetting
  • Questions and Answers Session

Day Two: Assembly Processes and Equipment (Continued)

  • Component Placement
    • Machine Types and Characteristics
    • Feeder Types (Attributes and Characteristics)
    • Placement Considerations and Parameters
    • Set-Up and Change-Over
    • Avoiding Placement Defects
    • Line Balancing
  • Reflow Soldering
    Reflow Profile

    • Reflow Profile Characteristics
    • Reflow Specification Derivation
  • PCBA profile development procedure
    • Thermocouple Location
    • Thermocouple Attachment Methodology
    • Attaining the Specified Profile
  • Reflow Oven types and characteristics
    • Convection Dominant (Forced Convection)
    • Vapor Phase

Intrusive (Pin-in-Paste) Reflow

  • Wave Soldering
    • Machine Types
    • Profile Development
    • Process Considerations
  • Selective Soldering
    • Aperture Fixtures
    • Selective Soldering Machine Types
    • Process Considerations
    • Selective Soldering DFM Considerations
    • Profile Development
  • Cleaning
    • Contaminants and Corresponding Solvents
    • Effectiveness of Aqueous Detergents
    • Cleaning Equipment (Batch and In-Line Systems)
    • Cleanability of Components
    • Driving Forces for No Clean
    • Cleaning No Clean

  • Inspection and Testing
    • Testing and Controlling the Process Through SPC
    • Inspection Points and Strategies in the Process
    • SPI
    • AOI
    • X-ray
    • Testing Considerations
  • Summary
  • Questions and Answers Session

Design for Manufacturability (From an Assembly Point of View)

Course Instructor: Jim Hall and/or Phil Zarrow
Duration: One Day

Objectives of the Course

Providing a printed circuit design that can be cost-effectively reproduced and converted into a high-quality, reliable, functional, and electronic product requires that the designer have a grasp of the total assembly process. In addition to designing for speed, frequency, and packaging requirements, the successful designer must be knowledgeable with respect to the characteristics and capabilities of the SMT assembly process, including soldering, placement, cleaning, and testing.

This on-site course is intended to provide the participant with a broad overview of the SMT assembly processes and the design issues associated with manufacturing them. How the design effects manufacturing capability and vice versa will be covered in depth. Equipment, processes, and materials specific to the client will receive additional focus.

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Design for Manufacturability (From an Assembly Point of View)

Course Instructor: Jim Hall and/or Phil Zarrow
Duration: One Day

Objectives of the Course

Providing a printed circuit design that can be cost-effectively reproduced and converted into a high-quality, reliable, functional, and electronic product requires that the designer have a grasp of the total assembly process. In addition to designing for speed, frequency, and packaging requirements, the successful designer must be knowledgeable with respect to the characteristics and capabilities of the SMT assembly process, including soldering, placement, cleaning, and testing.

This on-site course is intended to provide the participant with a broad overview of the SMT assembly processes and the design issues associated with manufacturing them. How the design effects manufacturing capability and vice versa will be covered in depth. Equipment, processes, and materials specific to the client will receive additional focus.

pexels-photo-57007-scaled

Course Outline

  1. Substrate Parameters
    • Typical Substrate Materials
    • PCB Structure
    • TCE Mismatches
    • Substrate Material Properties
  2. Component Considerations
    • Overview of Package Types
    • New and Emerging Packages
    • Standardization Rules for Design
    • Component Density
    • Recommended Land Patterns for New Packages
    • Connector Types and Considerations
    • Moisture Sensitive Devices
  3. Layout Geometry Consideration: Chip Components and Actives
    • Solder Pad Design
    • Solder Mask Design
    • Trace-Pad Design
    • Component Orientation
  4. Design Guidelines for SMT
    • Fiducial Marks
    • Conductor Routing: Near and Entering Pads
    • Via Hole Placement
    • Mixed Technology Considerations
    • Component Spacing
    • Component Orientation
    • Component Location
    • Edge Clearances
    • Design for Inspectability

  1. Design Standards
    • IPC
    • EIA
    • Other Sources and References
  2. Assembly and Soldering Process Considerations
    • Printing
    • Component Placement
    • Reflow
    • Wave Soldering
  3. Other Factors Impacting Design and Manufacturability
    • Design for Repairability
    • Design for Testability
  4. Packaging and Process Directions and Impacts
    • BGA
    • CSP and Flip Chip
    • Reflow of Through Hole
    • OSP
    • No-Clean Process
  5. Discussion
    • Questions and Answers Pertaining to Specific Customer Application Problems

What You Will Learn

  • An understanding of the total SMT assembly process
  • How the PCB design impacts the assembly process
  • How designing for manufacturability results in higher efficiency in assembly as well as higher yields
  • Manufacturing implications of emerging technologies including PCMCIA, reflow of through hole (intrusive soldering), chip-scale packaging and others

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for design engineers, as well as manufacturing, process, test, and quality engineering personnel and management who want to become more familiar and comfortable with the design for manufacturability requirements of the SMT assembly process.

Best Practices in SMT and Electronic Assembly

Course Instructors: Phil Zarrow, Joe Belmonte and/or Jim Hall
ITM Consulting
Course Duration: One or Two Days

Objectives of the Course

This is an important workshop that drives awareness and presents solutions to the adverse impact of nonoptimal assembly practices and processes.

A comprehensive perspective on problem issues is developed for the electronic assembly process, including design, materials (both existing and emerging), equipment, procedures, and methods. Most importantly, practical solutions are presented. Key issues that consistently result in assembly problems and low yields are identified and resolved.

Topics Covered

  1. Introduction and Optimization Objective
    • Definition of “Best Practices”
    • Getting the Most Productivity From an Existing Line (Optimization and Productivity)
    • Process Characterization
    • Inspection and Test Planning
  2. Best Practices in the Assembly Process
    • Material Handling (PCBs, Solder Paste, and MSDs)
    • Solder Paste Printing Process Best Practices (Stencil Design and Printer Parameters)
    • Component Placement Process Best Practices
    • Reflow Soldering Process Best Practices
    • Wave and Selective Soldering Process Best Practices
    • Conformal Coating Best Practices
    • Design for Manufacturability Considerations (Data Driven Process Design and DOE and SPC)
    • Best Practices Concerning “Challenging Technologies” (QFNs and Ultra-Miniature Components (0201s, 01005s, Ultra-Fine Pitch BGAs and CSPs))

Considerations in On-Shoring /Regionalizing Electronic Manufacturing

Instructor: Phil Zarrow and Jim Hall
Duration: One or Two Days

Many electronic manufacturers are experiencing increasing difficulties with off-shoring their manufacturing. These challenges include increasing supply-chain problems costs, loss of control of IP, delays in deliveries, problem resolution, and implementing design changes, inventory costs, among others. As a result, many OEMs are considering bringing their electronic assembly "back home" to North America.

ITM Consulting has extensive experience in both process auditing as well as assisting OEMs in evaluating, selecting, and monitoring CEMs. This course will familiarize the participants with the techniques and methodologies for evaluating, selecting, and working with North American contract assemblers.

This workshop provides participants with an understanding of the outsourcing process from start to finish. It reviews PCB design principles, basic assembly processing, supplier selection concerns, and the fundamentals of maintaining a successful and on-going relationship with the chosen suppliers.

Checklists for both qualifying and on-going evaluation of contract assemblers are provided and key to the seminar. This course gives knowledgeable insight into the behind-the-scenes activity at the contract manufacturer as well as an unbiased view of typical procurement activities.

What You Will Learn

  • The different types of contract assembly houses – they are not all the same
  • The effects of volume, schedule, and process requirements of the assemblies on the contract assembler relationship
  • How to determine which contract manufacturers are best suited for your application
  • How to qualify contract manufacturers
  • The importance of proper PCB design on maximizing the contract assembly relationship
  • The importance of effective and timely communication
  • How to put together a contract manufacturer qualification checklist
  • How to put together a contract manufacturer evaluation checklist

Topics

  1. Advantages of Re-Shoring/Regionalization of Electronic Manufacturing to North America
    • Business and Logistical Advantages
    • Supply Chain Advantages
  2. Contract Manufacturer Selection Criteria and Considerations
    • Why Do Companies Outsource?
    • Qualification Team
    • Strategic Factors Affecting Qualification and Selection
    • Ongoing Business Relationship
  3. Outsourcers’ Perspectives of and Issues With Contract Assembly
    • Growth of the Electronic Manufacturing Services Industry (EMSI)
    • Perspective of Competition
    • Control of Quality
    • Service Issues
    • Research and Development Issues
    • Others
  4. Optimizing the Contract Assembly Relationship
    • Design for Manufacturability
    • Communications
    • Preparation for Future Growth
  5. Contract Assembly Qualification Checklist
    • Facility
    • Workmanship Standards
    • Inspection
    • Equipment
    • Business Structure
    • Other

Who Should Attend

The course should be attended by manufacturing, process, quality, and design engineers and management as well as those individuals who are involved or will be involved in the outsourcing of SMT product tos contract assembly. Managers and engineers engaged in selecting and interfacing with contract assembly firms will benefit from the course. The information provided in this course will allow them to make informed decisions and optimize their relationship with the CEM.

Lean Six-Sigma GREEN BELT

Lean Six Sigma is a combined process-improvement methodology that accelerates processes, increases efficiency, and reduces or eliminates variation. Whether you are a CEM or OEM, competition for the same customers is increasing throughout the electronics industry, putting company profits on the line. Customer expectations are changing rapidly as the rate of information increases and while costs are escalating, margins are shrinking. Now more than ever, achieving process excellence is essential.

The ITM Lean Six Sigma is an electronics assembly industry-specific program. Unlike other general LSS programs, the ITM Lean Six Sigma Green Belt curriculum focuses on the requirements, parameters and culture as well as the processes, equipment, and materials pertinent to electronic assemblers. The program will teach the participant how to:

  • Analyze the root cause of defects and product problems
  • Redesign process flow to accommodate customer and supply chain variability
  • Make informed decisions about the cost-benefit of a company project
  • Capture and utilize meaningful metrics to help know and grow your business
  • Experiment to determine best practices to deliver quality products

The ITM Lean Six Sigma Greenbelt course is offered as a scheduled workshop on-site at your facility. Examples used in the class, as well as projects, are not only germane to electronic assembly situations and problems but can be directed towards the specifics of your company. Successful attainment of the ITM Green Belt will help you solve problems, reduce waste, improve process speed, and eliminate process variation. You will have the knowledge to help eliminate unnecessary costs and improve the bottom line.

This hands-on workshop is designed for Lean Six Sigma project team members. Participants will become familiar with basic Lean and Six Sigma tools within the context of the DMAIC methodology. Core workshops offer statistical analysis package training (MINITAB or JMP) to conduct and analyze various outputs stemming from experiments in the measurement phase (Statistical Process Control) and the analysis phase (Design of Experiments) in a well-designed Lean Six Sigma project.

Each participant should have their own laptop for this workshop. Participants are required to download at least the trial copy of a statistical analysis package (i.e. Mini-Tab).

To maintain the high standards of ITM Consulting, we require testing at the Green Belt level before granting certification. An open-notes exam must be completed within 5 days of the last session to be eligible for the Green Belt certificate. The exam is designed to help verify the newly gained knowledge and a score of 70% or greater is necessary to pass the test.

With Green Belt certification, you will be able to manage root cause analysis, process mapping, and a variety of useful process calculations, making an invaluable member of your company’s Lean Six Sigma project team.

Day 1

  1. Continuous Improvement
  2. DMAIC

Day 2

  1. Intro to LEAN
  2. Visual Management and Mapping

Day 3

  1. Teams
  2. Student Practice

Day 4 (AM)

  1. Projects

Day 4 (PM)

  1. Six Sigma: Introduction to Statistics (Minitab Will Be Used in This Part of the Workshop)

Day 5

  1. Statistical Process Control (SPC)
  2. Introduction to Design of Experiments (DOE)

Case Study Project
A case study will be derived from a client situation(s) as well as some relevant data.

Take Home Exam: Four to Eight Hours

This take-home exam is required. (This is an open notes exam and graded on a pass or fail basis)

Books
The following two books are required for this workshop (for each student):

  • “Six Sigma Statistics with EXCEL and MINI-TAB” by Issa Bass, 2007 (approximately $25 from Amazon)
  • “ITM Electronics Assembly Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Coursebook” by Dr. Ron Lasky and W. James Hall, ITM Consulting, 2012 ($75 from ITM Consulting – order when scheduling LSS Greenbelt Workshop

For a detailed agenda as well as for ordering and scheduling, please contact Phil Zarrow at ITM@ITMconsulting.com or phil_zarrow@ITMconsulting.com.

SIX-SIGMA Lite: Continuous Improvement Plan for Quality (CIPQ)

Course Title: Six-Sigma Lite: Continuous Improvement Plan for Quality (CIPQ)
Instructors: Dr. Ron Lasky and Jim Hall, Lean Six-Sigma Master Blackbelts
Duration: Two Days

Course Description

CIPQ, presented by ITM Consulting, is a 2-day intensive practical course designed to provide a plan for a continuous improvement program for quality for Electronic Manufacturing and to facilitate such initial improvement programs within the organization. It is targeted at leaders who can appreciate the benefits of significant improvements in quality throughout their organizations who are already interested in utilizing and improving their existing quality data and are considering using CIP tools such as SPC and Pareto as a foundation to make continuous improvements in their company’s operations.

Topics Covered

  • Continuous Improvement Concepts
    Developing and Evaluating Test and Inspection Techniques and Strategies (Gauge R&R)
  • Statistical Process Control
  • Pareto Analysis
  • Implementation at the Facility
  • Designation of a CIPQ Champion

This program is designed to allow leaders (managers, CEOs, etc) to understand some of the basic principles and practical benefits of a Continuous Improvement Plan for Quality and it provides simple but effective tools to support the successful implementation of real money-saving (waste-eliminating) projects. Specific tools for improving quality will include test & measurement strategies, statistical process control, and Pareto analysis.

To facilitate the understanding of these techniques, examples will be presented from SMT assembly that can be related to the student’s daily job. The student will learn how to establish and implement a statistical process control program and use Pareto analysis all in the framework of a continuous improvement program.

As part of the training, students will work through a small project of their own choosing within their working environment and complete the program by developing an expanded outline of future improvement projects, including Metrics, Action Items, and Personnel Assignments. ITM Staff will offer follow-up assistance on evaluating the implementation of these projects.

Teamwork is one of the foundations of CIPQ and will be emphasized and developed throughout the course in-class exercises and project activities. This course will facilitate the empowerment of all employees, moving involvement and decision making to the lowest appropriate level. This has been found to be extremely helpful in developing personnel and improving management structure; especially for small and medium-sized organizations which are expanding their operations and workforce.

Having taken the course and undertaken one or more projects, leaders will be motivated, including practical justifications for investments in time and training, to become Champions to expand the deployment of CIPQ techniques throughout their organizations, ultimately creating a comprehensive company-wide Continuous Improvement Program for Quality.

The course consists of 2 full days, on-site at your facility and a combination of lectures, classroom examples, and practical exercises based on your own operations.

Presented by ITM Consulting and taught by two LSS Master Black Belts from the Dartmouth College LSS program.

Who Should Attend

  • Managers concerned with the status quo and interested in investigating options for productivity improvement, performance enhancement, and organizational change.
  • Leaders considering embarking on a quality improvement strategy and are in a position to become Champions of implementation and deployment.
  • Key employees from all departments within the organization to understand the methodology that their company is embarking on and the potential benefits it can offer.

Course Outline

          1. Classroom: lectures & exercises
            • Introduction to Continuous Improvement for Quality
              • Fundamentals of Continuous Improvement Programs
              • Team Concepts
              • 6-sigma concepts
              • Use and value of DOE
              • Outline of DMAIC problem solving structure
              • Success stories
              • Sustainability for Continuous Improvement
        1. Test & Measurement Development
          • Test Measurement Techniques
          • Accuracy
          • Sampling
          • Evaluations: Gauge R&R
        2. SPC: Statistical Process Control
          • Special and Common Cause Variation
          • Precision and Accuracy
          • Shewhart Rules
          • SPC Charting with Minitab
          • Cp and Cpk
          • Minitab Capability Six Pack
        3. Pareto Analysis
          • How Pareto Analysis works in CIPQ

      Introductory in-plant project

          1. Student Walk-Through With Coaching
          2. Project Definition
          3. Project Execution: Improvements, Measurement Plan (Specifics Will Depend on Project Chosen by Students)

      In-Plant macro CIPQ evaluation

          1. Student Walk-Through With Coaching
          2. In-Plant Observations and Coaching
          3. Summarize and Organize Observation
          4. Brainstorm Possible Projects or Improvements
          5. Develop Deployment Plan

    After completion of the 2-day course
    Follow-up with ITM Instructors

      1. Project Progress
      2. Fine-Tuning and Modifications
      3. Additional Training Requirements

Class Three and High Reliability Best Practices

Instructors: Phil Zarrow, Jim Hall and/or Joe Belmonte
Duration: One and a Half Days

Where high-reliability electronic products are involved there is little or no room for error. Whether manufacturing military, avionics, medical, automotive, or other “mission-critical” applications, “escapes” (a defective product that fails for the end-user) can be anything from very bad to disastrous.

In addition, mistakes and scraps are usually very expensive. Problems rooted in the electronic assembly processes can usually be greatly reduced if not eliminated through the implementation of accepted best practices in manufacturing.

This course drives awareness and solutions to the adverse impact that non-optimal assembly practices and processes have on the product quality and financial success of electronic assembly businesses. A comprehensive perspective on problem issues is developed for the most currently critical electronic assembly process, materials (both existing and emerging), equipment, procedures, and methods.

Most importantly, practical solutions are presented. Key issues that consistently result in assembly problems and low yields are identified and resolved. This seminar is intended for anyone involved in directing, developing, managing, and/or executing assembly line operations including managers, line supervisors, and line engineers involved in manufacturing, design, and quality engineering of Class 3 products.

Topics Covered

Day 1

  • Introduction
  • Optimization Objective
    • Getting the Most Productivity From an Existing Line
    • Definition of “Best Practices”
  • Some “Deadly Sins” of SMT Assembly
  • Best Practices in the Assembly Process
  • Solder Paste Printing Process Best Practices
  • Pick and Place Best Practices
  • Reflow Soldering Best Practices
  • Wave and Selective Soldering Best Practices
  • Conformal Coating Best Practices

Day 2

  • Soldering Problem Failure Analysis
    Surviving in a lead-free world when product is exempt
  • Best Practices Concerning “Challenging Technologies”
    • QFNs
    • Ultra-Miniature Components (0201s, 01005s, Ultra-Fine Pitch BGAs and CSPs)
  • Process Optimization Best Practices
    • Data Driven Process Design
    • Practical Use of Design of Experiments (DOE) in Electronic Manufacturing
    • Practical Use of Statistical Process Control (SPC) in Electronics Manufacturing
    • Manufacturing Organization Best Practices
  • Q & A

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for manufacturing, process, design, test, and quality engineering personnel as well as management who are involved in the production of high reliability and/or Class 3 surface mount or mixed technology assemblies.

Advanced On-Site Workshops

These on-site workshops are intended for process, manufacturing, and quality engineers and management (level 2 personnel).

Bleeding Edge Technologies: An ITM Consulting signature workshop that addresses advanced component, material, and process technologies. Printing/stencil characteristics and other aspects of processing micro-passives (0201s, 01005s), QFNs, and lead-free will be covered and discussed.

Lean Manufacturing: Valuable to all employees, but particularly engineering and management, this course presents an overview of Lean Manufacturing theory and tools. Based upon very its very successful development at Toyota, Lean has evolved into the primary system of continuous improvement throughout the industry, world-wide. Covering the foundation concepts of value, waste, and through-put speed and presenting the basic tools of 5-S, mapping, etc., it will provide a good introduction or review for the ongoing Lean initiatives in the industry.

Process Engineer Certification Preparation: For engineers, managers, and techs that plan to take the SMTA Process Engineer Certification course, this comprehensive course will “fill in the knowledge gaps”.

SMT Troubleshooting: This course is intended to provide the participant with an understanding of how to identify and correct most SMT assembly problems. Vendor and design-related problems will be thoroughly examined. A step-by-step investigation of the assembly process with their related problems and remedies will help the participant achieve high-yield manufacturing. Workmanship standards are also presented and discussed.

Identifying Failure Mechanisms: For engineers, process, manufacturing, and quality personnel. Using stencil printing and wave soldering as descriptive examples, this course will present the techniques and procedures of failure

High Reliability Lean Lead-free SMT Manufacturing

Instructors: Jim Hall and/or Phil Zarrow
ITM Consulting
Duration: One Day

Topics

  • The basics of lean manufacturing as specifically applied to electronic assembly and manufacturing.
  • How to implement best Lean manufacturing practices including 5-S and SPC.
  • The composition and behavior of lead-free solder and how this affects deposition, reflow, and ultimate solder joint quality for specific applications.
  • How to evaluate the properties of different lead-free alloys and take advantage of specific product applications.
  • The fundamentals of lead-free solder paste deposition and reflow.
  • The realities of forward and backward compatibility issues, including long-term reliability, and available techniques for dealing with them.
  • How to use the conversion to Lead-Free Assembly to create a more “LEAN” manufacturing process.

Environmental and economic demands have made electronic manufacturing more challenging than ever. To be competitive in this day and age, the electronics assembler has to be both Lean and Green. A daunting task perhaps, but it can be accomplished.

Although many electronics manufacturers are still in transition to the production of RoHS compliant, Lead-Free products, sufficient experience has been gained throughout the industry to move the “science” of Lead-Free design and manufacturing from the investigation phase into at least the first levels of optimization. This must be accomplished in a manner that facilitates the manufacturer’s competitiveness.

This course teaches the essentials of lean manufacturing as they apply to SMT electronic assembly. Rather than generalizations, specific applications of lean principles are presented and discussed. Not surprisingly, these lean practices and methodologies complement and enhance the effectiveness of lead-free manufacturing.

The workshop also presents an objective examination of the current state of the industry in applying and optimizing Lead-free materials, solder, equipment, and processes.

The course examines what the variations in lead-free alloys mean to the electronic assembler at the process and logistics level and choosing specific alloys to enhance reliability for individual applications.

The pros and cons of specific available solder alloys are discussed and how these can be utilized to minimize costs, assembly problems, such as copper erosion and to enhance the reliability characteristics of certain types of products including handheld devices. The impact upon printing, placement, reflow, and inspection will be examined and the situations confronted by both OEMs and CEMs will also be discussed.

The final part of the course will contend with the implications of lead-free on the SMT assembly process with the most current research and data being presented. Interactions with substrate finishes and components will be discussed as will the far-reaching implications and process adaptations that must be made to accommodate no-lead soldering.

Conversion to RoHS Compliant, Lead-Free products and manufacturing involves a significant effort in time, materials, and personnel. This course will demonstrate some of the OPPORTUNITIES to use this conversion to create a more efficient and “Lean” production environment with higher yields and less defects.

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for Manufacturing, Process, and Quality Engineering personnel and management who are concerned about and wish to become familiar and comfortable with and to take advantage of the benefits of the Lead-Free SMT assembly. This course will be of benefit to intermediate and advanced SMT users. Most important, it will give your personnel a perspective on how to implement and optimize the Lead-Free assembly process in the most effective manner.

Through-Hole and Mixed-Technology Wave Soldering

Instructor: Bob Klenke
Duration: One Day

A critical issue for board level assemblers is forming through-hole interconnections on circuit boards of ever-increasing densities. This course provides an overview of through-hole and mixed-technology soldering and describes the principles of wave soldering, key process variables, wave solder processing, alloy selection, and flux requirements, alloy contamination and corrosion, as well as wave solder process optimization.

Wave soldering with lead-free alloys will be discussed in detail including differences in process parameters compared to tin-lead solder such as solderability aspects, wetting behavior of lead-free alloys, and higher operating temperatures.

This course is based on real-world consulting practice and provides actual case histories and examples where wave soldering has been successfully implemented. It also describes the proper understanding of thermal requirements, clearance restrictions, as well as solder joint reliability issues that will ensure complete knowledge of the wave soldering process.

Topics Covered

  1. Fundamentals of Wave Soldering
    • Solder Joint Formation
    • Capillary Action and Through Hole Vertical Fill
    • Vertical Fill Force Model and Thermal Mass Differential
  2. No-Clean Wave Soldering
    • Key Variables of No-Clean and Lead-Free Wave Soldering
    • Wave Process Parameters and Time-Temperature Limitations
    • Thermal Processing and Flux Residues
    • Thermal Mass Differential
  3. Wave Soldering Process Audit
    • Lead-Hole Aspect Ratio, Lead Projection, and Lead Pitch
    • Quality Assurance and Documentation Review
    • Preheating Methods Employed
  4. Flux Deposition
    • Liquid Flux Chemistries
    • Thermal Aspects of Flux Activation
    • Solder Joint and Solder Pot Temperature Correlation
  5. Thermal Profiling
    • Preheat Temperature and Typical Wave Solder Profile
    • Time and Temperature Thru Solder Wave
    • Thermocouple Attachment and Instrumentation Techniques

  1. Wave Dynamics
    • Wave Solder Flow Diagram
    • Solder Alloy Wetting Properties
    • Chip and Laminar Wave Dynamics
  2. Board Impingement
    • Through Hole Wetting Characteristics
    • Contact Time, Solder Dwell Time, and Contact Measurement
    • Immersion Depth and System Parallelism
  3. Preventative Maintenance
    • Dross Generation and Dross Prevention
    • Preventative Maintenance Procedures, Practices, and Frequency
    • Summary of Base Metals
  4. Solder Contamination
    • Solder Alloy Composition
    • Tin-Lead and Lead-Free Solder Alloy Contamination Levels
    • Lead-Free Corrosive Effects and Erosion Prevention
  5. Resolution of Defect Generation
    • Wave Solder Related Process Defects
    • Defect Condition and Preventive Actions
    • Wave Solder Process Optimization

Who Should Attend

This course will offer an up-to-date review of tin-lead and lead-free wave soldering, in a how-to-implement outline, beneficial to personnel intending to put wave soldering methods into practice. It is aimed at circuit board designers, process engineers, and operational personnel who are required to bring about the necessary changes to maintain competitive assembly processes for through-hole and mixed-technology boards of ever-increasing complexity.

Increasing Assembly Productivity and Profitability with Lean Techniques

Instructor: Dr. Ron Lasky
Duration: One Day

With the impressive arrays of enterprise software systems available, one would think that electronic assembly productivity would be at an all-time high. Unfortunately, that is not the case. Assembly line uptime has stagnated for years at less than 25% in most facilities.

This situation has cost assemblers countless millions of dollars. This one-half day workshop will address this need. In the workshop, we will cover the fundamentals of productivity: line uptime and line time balancing. After learning how to measure line uptime, students will use a free copy of the software LineSimulator™ to perform line balancing.

They will then measure the resulting benefits of improved line uptime and line balancing and deliver them by using a free copy of the cost estimating software ProfitPro™. The most effective productivity and profitability metric, non-material assembly cost per I/O (NMAC/I/O) will then be discussed and its use explained.

Line auditing and applying lean techniques such as 5S, the seven mudas and process mapping will then be introduced to help the student develop a strategy to improve productivity at their own facility.

The inadequacy of the metric “Cost of Ownership” will be examined and a new metric, “Profitability Potential” will be proposed.

Numerous productivity/profitability scenarios will be analyzed throughout the workshop with LineSumulator™ and ProfitPro™. Examples from the recently published book, Adventures of Patty and the Professor: Solving the World’s Productivity Problems in Electronic Assembly will be used in the class. The book will also be provided free to the students.

The workshop will finish with a Productivity and Profitability checklist that will help students assess and improve the profitability of their assembly lines.

What You Will Learn

  • How to measure line uptime
  • How to time balance a line using LineSimulator™
  • How to measure the effect on profitability of process improvements using ProfitPro™
  • Learn the benefits of and how to measure NMAC/I/O
  • How to audit your line for productivity
  • How to use 5S, the seven mudas and process mapping to improve productivity and profitability

  • How to understand why “cost of ownership is a poor metric” and “profitability potential” and better one
  • How to analyze numerous scenarios for productivity and profitability
  • How to perform a profitability assessment and develop an improvement plan at your own facility

LEAN Lite

Course Instructors: Dr. Ron Lasky and/or Jim Hall
Duration: Two Day

LEAN Lite, presented by ITM Consulting, is a 2-day intensive practical course designed to provide an introduction and basic skills in LEAN 6-Sigma (LSS) implementation for Electronic Manufacturing and to facilitate initial improvement programs within the organization. It is targeted at leaders who can appreciate the benefits of significant improvements in efficiency and quality throughout their organizations and are considering using LEAN 6-Sigma as a system to make continuous improvements in their company’s operations.

This program is designed to allow leaders (managers, CEOs, etc.) to understand some of the basic principles and practical benefits of LEAN and it provides simple but effective tools to support the successful implementation of real money-saving (waste-eliminating) projects. Specific tools for improving productivity will include line balancing and evaluations of down-time in automated assembly operations.

To facilitate estimating the financial benefits of potential improvement projects, a simple, spreadsheet-based Cost Model of the manufacturing facility will be developed during the course. As part of the training, students will work through a small project of their own choosing within their working environment and complete the program by developing an expanded outline of future improvement projects, including Metrics, Action Items, and personnel assignments. ITM Staff will offer follow-up assistance on evaluating the implementation of these projects.

Teamwork is one of the foundations of LSS and will be emphasized and developed throughout the course in-class exercises and project activities. This course will facilitate the empowerment of all employees, moving involvement and decision making to the lowest appropriate level. This has been found to be extremely helpful in developing personnel and improving management structure; especially for small and medium-sized organization which are expanding their operations and workforce.

Having taken the course and undertaken one or more projects, leaders will be motivated, including practical justifications for investments in time and training, to become Champions to expand the deployment of LEAN 6-Sigma techniques throughout their organizations, ultimately creating a comprehensive company-wide LSS Continuous Improvement Program.

The course consists of 2 full days, onsite at your facility and includes a combination of lectures, classroom examples, and practical exercises based on your own operations.

Presented by ITM Consulting and taught by two LSS Master Black Belts from the Dartmouth College LSS program.

Course Outline

  • PART I: Classroom: Lectures & Exercises
    • Introduction to LEAN 6-Sigma
      • Fundamentals of Continuous Improvement Programs
      • Team Concepts
      • 6-sigma concepts
      • Outline of DMAIC problem solving structure
      • Success stories of LSS implementation
      • Sustainability for Continuous Improvement
    • Simple LEAN Tools
      • The 7 MUDA’S (Wastes)
      • 5-S
      • Flow Charts
      • Layout Maps
      • Attribute (Counting) Data => PARETO Charts
      • SIPOC Map (Suppliers, Inputs, Processes, Outputs, and Customers)
    • 6 Sigma Very Lite (SPC, CP & Cpk, DOE Example)
    • Sustainability

  • PART 2: Introductory In-Plant Project
    • Student Walkthrough With Coaching
    • Project Definition
    • Project Execution: Improvements, Measurement Plan (Specifics Will Depend on Project Chosen by Students)
  • PART 3: In-Plant Macro LSS Evaluation
    • In-Plant Observations and Coaching
    • Summarize and Organize Observation
    • Brainstorm Possible Projects or Improvements
    • Develop Deployment Plan
  • PART 4: After Completion of the 2-Day Course
    • Follow-Up With ITM Instructors
    • Project Progress
    • Fine-Tuning and Modifications
    • Additional Training Requirements

Who Should Attend

Managers concerned with the status quo and interested in investigating options for productivity improvement, performance enhancement and organizational change.

Leaders considering embarking on a Lean and/or Six Sigma strategy and are in a position to become Champions of implementation and deployment.

Key employees from all departments within the organization to understand the methodology that their company is embarking on and the potential benefits it can offer.

Lead-Free for the Exemptee

Instructor: Jim Hall and/or Phil Zarrow
Duration: One Day

RoHS is upon us and everyone is affected. You’re exempt, deferred, or “out of scope” yet much of the industry is going to 100% Lead-free. This inevitably affects a major portion of your supply chain. Concurrently, competitive pressures can significantly impact the viability of long-term exemptions. This creates unique challenges both for your current and future business.

This workshop is designed to be a survival course for the RoHS Exemptee in a Lead-free world. The workshop will help you define and understand the current realities of Lead-free. Strategies for coping and adapting to the elimination or reduced availability of tin-lead components will be examined and discussed.

Issues including Tin Whiskers and Backward Compatibility are examined. With one of the key reasons for RoHS exemption being that of the difficulty of affirming long-term reliability of lead-free solder joints, testing parameters, acceleration factors, and modeling will also be discussed.

There are, sadly, no “silver bullets”. You must develop a reasonable strategy and this course will guide you by providing the background, current state of the industry and supply chain, as well as with discussion of the most probable trends and alternative techniques or methodologies for protecting the long-term viability and reliability of your product and business.

Topics Covered

  • Introduction
  • RoHs and Other Legislations
  • Overall Strategies
  • Long-Term Reliability Issues

  • Long-Term Supply Issues
  • Backward Compatibility
  • Backward Comp Strategies
  • Conclusions

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for manufacturing, process, design, and quality engineering personnel and management of firms who are exempt or deferred from RoHS and are concerned about coping with a lead-free SMT assembly world. This course will be of benefit to both beginners and advanced SMT users. More importantly, it will give your personnel a perspective on what they must be doing if your company’s going to clear the hurdles of lead-free.

Low-Volume – High-Mix Electronic Manufacturing

Considerations in Low-Volume – High-Mix Manufacturing

Course Instructors: Joe Belmonte, Phil Zarrow, Jim Hall, ITM Consulting

Objectives of the Course

In many regards, a low-volume electronic assembly can be far more demanding than manufacturing high volumes of a product. Add to this a high mix of products and the challenges involved in maintaining quality and efficiency become very perplexing. Sadly, many low volumes – high mix manufacturers succumb to the difficulties and this becomes apparent at the bottom line.

This workshop examines the complications of low-volume assembly and presents concepts and adaptations that work. Based upon the collective low-volume – high-mix manufacturing experiences of ITM consultants (Joe Belmonte, Phil Zarrow, Jim Hall, Bob Klenke, Steve Breed, and Ron Lasky). Design of process, documentation, and inventory management and even application of SPC are all discussed.

Topics Covered

  • What is a Low Volume High Mix Manufacturing Process?
    • Manufacturing Culture
    • Ranges of Operations
    • Identifying Customer Requirements; Niche Markets
  • Manufacturing Organization
    • Identifying the Most Efficient Manufacturing Organization for a Low-Volume High-Mix Manufacturing Operation
  • Designing a Low-Volume High-Mix Manufacturing Process
    • Specifications: Batch Size, Complexity of Products, etc.
    • Process Flow
    • Process Layout
    • Equipment Evaluation and Selection
    • Material Flow
  • Process Monitoring
    • Using Statistical Process Control (SPC) in a Low-Volume High-Mix Manufacturing Process
    • Monitoring and Reacting to SPC Charts
    • Process Discipline
    • Developing Effective Work Instructions
    • Critical Operation
    • Simple, Effective
    • Display at Work Stations

  • Process Training
    • Developing Training Programs for Operators, Technicians, Engineers, and Management to Optimize a Low-Volume High-Mix Manufacturing Operation and Keep It Running Efficiently
  • Job Sequencing
    • Determining the Sequence of Jobs to Be Built to Maximize Process Utilization
  • Set up or Changeover (for Individual Products)
    • Impact on Line Utilization
    • Minimizing Process Set Up Time
    • Process Layout
    • “Pit Crew Mentality”
  • Customer Satisfaction
    • Educating Customers on DFM and Process Capabilities

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for manufacturing, process, and quality engineering personnel, management, and owners who are involved in a low-volume – high-mix electronic manufacturing. It will give the participant a perspective on how to implement and optimize the low-volume-high-mix assembly in the most effective manner.

On-Site Customized SMT Assembly Workshops

On-Site SMT Assembly Workshops Customized for the Client

These workshops, performed on-site at your facility and oriented towards the products you build and the equipment, materials and processes you are using.

Soldering Fundamentals: Soldering is the predominant assembly technique in the construction of all electronic products. This course will present the fundamentals of soldering as a foundation for virtually all other assembly operations. It will define all the mechanisms and materials of soldering and identify correlations with other individual assembly steps and their significance to overall product quality and process efficiency. The program will consist of a single one-and-a-half to two-hour session.

SMT Basics: This is intended to give operators and supervisors a working perspective as to where their operations and equipment fit into the overall picture. The assembly processes will be covered in relatively non-technical terms. This helps assure that they know the process, what some remedies are to problems and/or when to call engineering. It also helps “buy-in” to the process. It can be presented as a single or multiple session or as a “lunch and learn” over several successive sessions.

SMT Boot Camp: This is for manufacturing, process, quality, and design engineering (and interested management). The entire process will be covered in depth: materials, components, equipment, processes, and troubleshooting. Brings everyone up to the same playing field (and fills in the knowledge gaps that might be present).

Solder Paste and Printing: For engineers and “advanced” operators” who want to thoroughly understand the solder paste and printing process. In addition to solder paste evaluation methodology (a good prelude to solder paste evaluation testing), all aspects of printing will be presented and discussed including proper DOE for set-up, troubleshooting printing defects, post-print inspection, and stencil design. Will include hands-on work.

Component Placement: For engineers and “advanced” operators who want to thoroughly understand component placement. Component types, tooling, equipment types, and troubleshooting will be covered.
Reflow Soldering: A very comprehensive workshop on reflow soldering for engineers and “advanced” techs. Will cover profiling and recipe determination, reflow parameters, nitrogen, and troubleshooting. May include hands-on work.

MSD Control: For engineers and quality and kitting personnel whose responsibilities include component management and control of moisture sensitive devices. IPC J-Std-033 and other appropriate documentation will be covered.

Wave Soldering: For engineers and advanced techs/operators working with the wave soldering operations, this comprehensive course will cover all aspects of the operation, set-up, profiling, maintenance, and troubleshooting.

Selective Soldering: As more selective soldering equipment and processing is in the future at Teledyne-EMS, this course will present the theory of operation, advantages, and application, operation, set-up, maintenance, and troubleshooting. It will also present considerations for selecting the appropriate equipment from what is on the market. For engineers and advanced techs/operators who are either working with selective now or are working with a wave and likely to be concerned with selective in the near future. This class can be combined with the Wave soldering class if appropriate.

Assembly Cleaning: For engineers, process, manufacturing, and quality, as well as techs, responsible for cleaning. Machine set-up, operation, cleanliness testing techniques, and troubleshooting will be discussed.

DFM Basics: For engineers involved with design reviews, interfacing with customers on dfm issues as well as process and manufacturing engineers affected or impeded by the design. Also, for those who will be involved in developing the Teledyne-EMS DFM Guidelines document. All aspects of the assembly process and interactions with the design will be examined and discussed.

Bleeding Edge Technologies: An ITM signature workshop that addresses advanced components, materials, and process technologies. Printing or stencil characteristics and other aspects of processing micro-passives (0201s, 01005s), QFNs, and lead-free will be covered and discussed.

Deadly Sins of SMT Assembly: Another ITM signature workshop that addresses the common mistakes, blunders, and bad practices that plague the assembly process. Based upon ITM’s experience in troubleshooting and audits of many processes, “how to do it right” is emphasized. The actual findings of your process audit will be included in this in-house version.

Identifying Failure Mechanisms: For engineers, process, manufacturing, and quality. Using stencil printing and wave soldering as descriptive examples, this course will present the techniques and procedures of failure analysis for identifying the root cause of product quality problems.

Conformal Coating: This workshop will cover all aspects of conformal coating application including properties, set-up, controlling and other metrics, application techniques and technology, curing and coverage, and adhesion testing.

SMT Troubleshooting: This course is intended to provide the participant with an understanding of how to identify and correct most SMT assembly problems. Vendor and design-related problems will be thoroughly examined. A step-by-step investigation of the assembly process with their related problems and remedies will help the participant achieve high-yield manufacturing. Workmanship standards are also presented and discussed.

Avoiding Counterfeit Components and Materials: This workshop is intended to assist electronic assemblers in defining and understanding the practices necessary up and down the supply chain and in-house to avoid incorporating counterfeit and otherwise non-authentic components into the assemblies being built. The goal is to have the highest possible level of security against the threat of counterfeit components and materials.

Certificate of Completion will be given to participants.

Test and Certification will be given by ITM.

10 Deadly Sins of SMT and Lead-free Assembly

The Deadly Sins of SMT and Lead-Free Assembly

Instructors: Phil Zarrow and/or Jim Hall
Duration: One Day

During the course of our assembly process audits and troubleshooting work, we tend to see trends in the types of errors and problems. In other words, a lot of people are making the same mistakes. The resulting process problems wreak havoc with an impact on assembly yields ranging from 5 to 20%.

In addition to this direct cost, there is also additional financial impact with regard to time spent reworking and repairing, the on corrective action by QC, engineering, and management, and, of course, "do-over".

This workshop identifies the "deadly sins" of SMT assembly, both for Pb-free and "leaded" processes. Besides the symptoms and consequences of each type of error, root-cause, rectification, and prevention techniques will be presented.

The workshop will, thus, provide the participant with an understanding of how to identify and correct the most common SMT assembly problems. It will include identification of vendor and source problems including components and materials as well as design-related problems.

Topics Covered

  1. The 10 Deadly Sins
    • Why 10?
    • The Process Audit
    • The 10 Deadly Sins of SMT Assembly
  2. Solder Paste Printing
    • Common Problems and Resolution
      • Solder paste and Materials Related
      • Printer Set-up Related
  3. Component Placement
    • Common Problems and Resolution
      • Supplier and Material Related Problems
      • Program Related
      • Wasted Capacity
  4. Reflow
    • Common Problems and Resolution
      • Profile
      • Nitrogen usage
      • Data

  1. Wave Soldering
    • Common Problems and Resolution
      • Machine Related
      • Materials Related
  2. Repair, Rework, and Touch-up
    • Common Problems and Resolution
      • HV Leaks
      • Repetitive Defects After Wave
  3. SPC
  4. Documentation
  5. MSD
  6. Design Related
  7. Lean Manufacturing
    • Lean vs. Anorexic
    • Productivity

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for manufacturing, process, design, test, and quality engineering personnel as well as management who are involved in the production of surface mount or mixed technology assemblies.

Basics of Cleaning Electronic Assemblies

Instructors: Phil Zarrow, Joe Belmonte and/or Jim Hall
Duration: One Day

The complexion and complexities of cleaning electronic assemblies have changed drastically over the last few decades. A plethora of flux chemistries and their associated soils prevail today presenting challenges with regard to the proper solvent and equipment. In addition to fluxes, the composition of modern PCBAs presents major complexities including micro-miniature and no-lead components, PCB materials, and surface finishes as well as conformal coating.

While cleaning no-clean fluxes seems like an oxymoron, the necessity and challenges of doing so confronts many assemblers, particularly those building Class 3 and other high-reliability assemblies, ultra-high frequency and microwave as well as medical products.

This workshop gets into the basics of cleaning contemporary electronic assemblies. What the soils are and the key elements of successful cleaning. Methodologies, equipment, and cleanliness testing are all examined and discussed.

Topics Covered

  • Introduction – Why Clean
  • Flux
    • Composition
    • Challenges
  • Ionic Contamination
  • Brief History of the Cleaning Process
    • Today’s Residues Are Harder to Clean
  • Choosing the Correct Cleaning Solution
    • Soils
    • Methodologies
    • Solvents
    • Materials Compatibility

  • Equipment Considerations
    • Elements and Requirements
    • Batch
    • In-line
    • User Perspective
    • Electrical Failures
    • Cost Models
  • Cleanliness Testing
    • Current Test Methods
    • Advantages and Disadvantages

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for manufacturing, process, design and quality engineering personnel, and management with electronic assemblies that must be cleaned. It will give the participant a perspective on how to implement and optimize the cleaning process.

SMT Manufacturing – Introduction to the Assembly Process

Instructors: Phil Zarow, Jim Hall and/or Joe Belmonte
Duration: 1 Day

This course is intended to provide the participant with a thorough yet practical overview of Surface Mount Technology manufacturing. The SMT assembly process will be covered, step by step.

Topics Covered

  1. The SMT Concept
    • Surface Mount versus Through Hole Technology
    • Types of SMT Assemblies
  2. Solder Paste
    • Solder Paste Composition and Behavior:
    • Fluxes: RMA, Water Soluble, and No-Cleans
  3. Solder Paste Printing and Deposition
    • Deposition Basics
    • Screen and Stencil Engineering
    • Control and Variables
    • Machine Elements and Parameters
    • Machine and Operator Interaction

  1. Automatic Component Placement
    • Manual and Semi-automatic alternatives
    • Categorization of Automatic Placement Equipment (Levels I through V)
    • Flexibility Versus Throughput
    • Feeders
  2. SMT Soldering
    • Wavesoldering
    • Principles and Methods of Reflow Soldering
    • Reflow Process Considerations
    • Atmospheric Soldering (Nitrogen)
    • Reflow Specification
    • Reflow Process Troubleshooting

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for manufacturing, process, design, test, and quality engineering personnel as well as management that are just getting involved in SMT assembly and want to become familiar and comfortable with the process and related technologies.

SMT Process Training with ITM Certification

ITM Consulting is the only organization in the industry that offers training and certification on specific SMT processes. These workshops are offered at two levels:

Level 2 is intended for process, manufacturing, and quality engineers as well as engineering management and is presented at the appropriate engineer-oriented level.

Level 1 is intended for equipment operators, techs, and supervisors. It has found that empowering line people with basic process knowledge as it pertains to the work they are doing results in higher quality because of the “buy-in” into the process.

Where ITM Certification is to be awarded, a test is included as part of the workshop. Participants must get a passing score of 75% in order receive certification on that particular process.

Solder Paste, Stencils, and Printing: For engineers and “advanced” operators” who want to thoroughly understand solder paste, stencil design, and printing process. This is a unique course that emphasizes the interrelationships between these three critical elements of the process. In addition to solder paste functional requirements and evaluation methodology (a good prelude to solder paste evaluation testing), the interactions between paste and stencil will be covered, including area and aspect ratios and powder types. All aspects of printing will be presented and discussed including proper DOE for set-up, troubleshooting printing defects, post-print inspection, and stencil design. (Offered in Level 1 and Level 2 versions)*

Component Placement: For engineers and “advanced” operators who want to thoroughly understand component placement. Component types, tooling, equipment types, and troubleshooting will be covered. (Offered in Level 1 and Level 2 versions)

Reflow Soldering: A very comprehensive workshop on reflow soldering for engineers and “advanced” techs. Will cover profiling and recipe determination, reflow parameters, nitrogen, and troubleshooting. Also “advanced” techniques for difficult assemblies with complex surface geometries. May include hands-on work. (Offered in Level 1 and Level 2 versions)

MSD Control: For engineers and quality and kitting personnel whose responsibilities include component management and control of moisture sensitive devices. IPC J-Std-033 and other appropriate documentation will be covered.

Wave Soldering and Selective Soldering: For engineers and advanced techs/operators working with the wave soldering and selective soldering operations, this comprehensive course will cover all aspects of the operation, set-up, profiling, maintenance, and troubleshooting. (Offered in separate Level 1 and Level 2 versions)

Assembly Cleaning: For engineers, process, manufacturing, and quality, as well as techs, responsible for cleaning. Machine set-up, operation, cleanliness testing techniques, and troubleshooting will be discussed. (Offered in Level 1 and Level 2 versions)

DFM Basics: For engineers involved with design reviews, interfacing with customers on DFM issues as well as process and manufacturing engineers affected or impeded by the design. Also, for those who will be involved in developing an internal DFM Guidelines document. All aspects of the assembly process and interactions with designs will be examined and discussed. (Offered only in Level 2 version)

These Process Workshops are offered as an ITM Process Certification workshop (or without).

Level 1: Operators, Line Technicians and Supervisors

Level 2: Process, Manufacturing and Quality Engineers and Management

SMT Solder Paste Evaluation and Qualification

Instructors: Phil Zarrow, Joe Belmonte and/or Jim Hall
Duration: Half a Day

Materials for most SMT assemblies, yet very few users know how to qualify and evaluate the solder paste appropriate to their process. This course is intended to provide the participant with an understanding of how to evaluate and select the solder paste best suited for the application including circuit board composition and assembly environment.

There will be an initial discussion of the composition and characteristics of solder paste and how this relates to the assembly process, particularly deposition and reflow. Comprehensive, yet easy to perform evaluation procedures are then presented to for evaluating and identifying the best-qualified solder paste for the process. The course will provide the tools for the participant to properly assess solder paste in his/her facility.

Topics

  1. Solder Paste Basics
    • What is Solder Paste?
    • Metal Component
    • Chemical Components
  2. Process Considerations
    • Printing and Deposition
    • Reflow
    • Solder Paste Characteristics

  1. Solder Paste Evaluation Tests
    • Quantitative Solder Ball Test
    • Residue Evaluation
    • Slump Tests
    • Wetting Tests
      • Standard
      • OSP
      • Tack Tests
      • Work-Life Tests
      • Chip-Shooter Compatibility Test
  2. The Vendor-User Relationship
    • Technical Support
    • Source considerations

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for manufacturing, process, and quality engineering personnel as well as management who are involved in the production of surface mount or mixed technology assemblies utilizing solder paste and wish to lower their defect rate through the use of the best solder paste for their respective processes.

SMT Stencil Printing and Inspection

Instructors: Joe Belmonte, Jim Hall and/or Phil Zarrow
Duration: One Day

This course is intended to give the participant an in-depth understanding of SMT soldering fundamentals. The various aspects of solder paste including No-clean and water-soluble soldering processes. Fine-pitch devices and ball grid array requirements, conductive epoxies, and adhesives and reflow of through hole will also be covered.

Emphasis is placed on stencil printing and post-print inspection fundamentals. Inspection technique and parameters are also presented as well as troubleshooting of the soldering process.

What Your Will Learn

  • The composition and behavior of solder pastes (including RMA, OA, no-clean and lead-free) and how these affect deposition, reflow, and ultimate solder joint quality
  • The fundamentals of solder paste deposition including equipment, stencil technology, and printer control parameters
  • Considerations for reflow of through hole (pin-in-paste) process
  • Important design considerations for achieving defect-free soldering
  • How to troubleshoot soldering problems

Topics

  • The SMT Concept
  • Solder Paste and Adhesives
  • Solder Paste and Adhesive Printing and Deposition
  • Post Print Inspection
  • Solder Printing Troubleshooting
  • Reflow of Through-hole (Pin-in-Paste) Process

Who Should Attend

This course is intended for manufacturing, process, design, and quality engineering personnel and management who wish to become familiar and comfortable with the SMT solder paste printing process, equipment, and materials. This course will be of benefit to both beginners and intermediate SMT users.

Customized Workshops

While all on-site workshops and seminars are adapted to the client's specific requirements, processes, and equipment, ITM specializes in developing and presenting on-site courses customized for specific topics and specifically for the audience in attendance.

For instance, a CEM can contract with ITM Consulting to teach account managers about SMT processes on the topics that specifically relate job duties and at a level with enough detail to give them an understanding and make them conversant with their customers.

ITM Consulting can also help an OEM bring its outsourcing program managers up to speed on what processes, materials, and equipment the CEM should be using as well as how to audit suppliers' production. Contact us with your specific needs.

Mastering Wave Soldering Processing and Manufacturability

Instructor: Bob Klenke, ITM Consulting
Duration: One Day

Course Objectives:
This workshop teaches the essentials of wave soldering and describes process variables serving as guidance to enhance the integrity, reliability and quality provided by various wave soldering equipment. Wave soldering with lead-free alloys will be covered in detail including differences in process parameters compared to tin-lead solder such as solderability aspects, wetting behavior of lead-free alloys, and higher operating temperatures. Numerous case studies based on the instructor’s experience will be presented. The workshop is based on real-world consulting practice defining the proper understanding of thermal requirements, component limitations, clearance restrictions, and solder joint reliability issues that will ensure complete knowledge of the wave soldering process.

Key Takeaways

  • How to improve your wave soldering operations
  • How to reduce wave soldering defects
  • Advanced process troubleshooting techniques
  • How to reduce post wave soldering rework and increase yields

Topics Covered

  1. Fundamentals of Through-Hole Soldering
    • Capillary action and through-hole vertical fill
    • Solder joint formation and vertical force model
    • Wave soldering flow diagram and component thermal mass differential
    • Wave dynamics, board impingement and thermal processing
  2. Solderability
    • Oxidation layers and surface wetting
    • Zero force wetting time and bare board cleanliness
    • Post-soldering iconic contamination levels and dross abatement
    • Manual soldering and component re-tinning
  3. Solder Alloys
    • Tin-lead and lead-free alloys and surface wetting characteristics
    • Alloy characteristics and copper dissolution
    • Melting point and HMP alloys
    • Solder joint and solder pot temperature correlation
  4. Flux Deposition and Flux Activation
    • Liquid flux chemistries and thermal aspects of flux activation
    • Preheat temperature and typical thermal profile
    • Time-temperature limitations
    • No-clean thermal processing and mitigation of flux residues
  5. Thermal Profiling
    • Thermal transfer characteristics
    • Thermocouple location selection criteria
    • Instrumentation techniques and preheating methodologies
    • Preheat selection and sustained preheat
  1. Through-Hole Design Guidelines
    • Lead-to-hole aspect ratio and lead projection
    • Lead pitch and DFMA guidelines
    • Aperture pallet design guidelines and critical keep-out areas
    • Interlayer construction, ground planes and thermal relief design rules
  2. Quality Measurement
    • Solder joint inspection criteria
    • Post-soldering inspection protocols and inspection methodologies
    • Pareto analysis of defect type
    • Defect frequency and location
  3. Troubleshooting Guideline
    • Defect condition and root cause analysis
    • TH solder defect cause and effect matrix
    • Board impingement, dwell time and system parallelism
    • Prevention of re-occurrence
  4. Process Optimization
    • Optimization of wave soldering process parameters
    • DPMO and OFD quality measurement
    • DoE methodologies and validation run
    • Defect mapping techniques
  5. Preventative Maintenance
    • Maintenance procedures, practices and frequency
    • Summary of base metals and solder alloy composition
    • Lead-free corrosive effects and erosion prevention
    • Tin-lead and lead-free solder alloys contamination levels
  1. Through-Hole Design Guidelines
    • Lead-to-hole aspect ratio and lead projection
    • Lead pitch and DFMA guidelines
    • Aperture pallet design guidelines and critical keep-out areas
    • Interlayer construction, ground planes and thermal relief design rules
  2. Quality Measurement
    • Solder joint inspection criteria
    • Post-soldering inspection protocols and inspection methodologies
    • Pareto analysis of defect type
    • Defect frequency and location
  3. Troubleshooting Guideline
    • Defect condition and root cause analysis
    • TH solder defect cause and effect matrix
    • Board impingement, dwell time and system parallelism
    • Prevention of re-occurrence
  4. Process Optimization
    • Optimization of wave soldering process parameters
    • DPMO and OFD quality measurement
    • DoE methodologies and validation run
    • Defect mapping techniques
  5. Preventative Maintenance
    • Maintenance procedures, practices and frequency
    • Summary of base metals and solder alloy composition
    • Lead-free corrosive effects and erosion prevention
    • Tin-lead and lead-free solder alloys contamination levels

Handout Materials

Each person who attends the Mastering Wave Soldering Processing and Manufacturability workshop will receive hardcopies of:

  • PDF copy of 222-page PowerPoint presentation suitable for course note taking
  • 38-page Wave Soldering Process Manual and Manufacturability Guideline booklet
  • Through-Hole Soldering Troubleshooting Guide laminated and suitable as quick reference guide

In-Plant Training

  • 10 Deadly Sins of SMT and Lead-free Assembly
  • Advanced On-Site Workshops
  • Basics of Cleaning Electronic Assemblies
  • Best Practices for Class Three and High Reliability
  • Best Practices in SMT and Electronic Assembly
  • Class Three and High Reliability Best Practices
  • Considerations in On-Shoring/Regionalizing Electronic Manufacturing
  • High-Reliability, Lean, and Lead-free SMT Manufacturing
  • Increasing Assembly Productivity and Profitability With Lean Techniques
  • LEAN Lite
  • Lean Six-Sigma GREEN BELT
  • Low Volume — High Mix Electronic Manufacturing
  • On-Site Customized SMT Assembly Workshops
  • Outsourcing SMT To Contract Assembly
  • SIX-SIGMA Lite: Continuous Improvement Plan for Quality (CIPQ)
  • SMT Manufacturing — Introduction to the Assembly Process
  • SMT Process Training with ITM Certification
  • SMT Solder Paste Evaluation and Qualification
  • SMT Stencil Printing and Inspection
  • Through Hole and Mixed-Technology Wave Soldering
  • Advanced On-Site Workshops

Selective Soldering Workshop

Workshop Title: Mastering Selective Soldering Processing and Manufacturability
Instructor: Bob Klenke, Principal Consultant, ITM Consulting
Duration: One (1) day classroom session

Objectives of the Workshop
This workshop teaches the essentials of selective soldering and describes process variables serving as guidance to enhance the flexibility, reliability and quality provided by various selective soldering equipment. Selective soldering with lead-free alloys will be covered in detail including differences in process parameters compared to tin-lead solder such as solderability aspects, wetting behavior of lead-free alloys, and higher operating temperatures. Numerous case studies based on the instructor’s experience will be presented. The workshop is based on real-world consulting practice defining the proper understanding of component limitations, clearance restrictions, thermal requirements and solder joint reliability issues that will ensure complete knowledge of the selective soldering process.

Who Should Attend
This workshop is intended for equipment operators, shop floor technicians, process engineers as well as manufacturing and quality personnel who are experienced in SMT and through-hole assembly who want to further their expertise in implementing and troubleshooting the processes, equipment, and materials involved in modern electronic assembly technology. Most importantly it will give attendees a perspective on how to implement and optimize the selective soldering process in an effective manner.

Key Takeaways

  • How to improve your selective soldering operations
  • How to reduce selective soldering defects
  • Advanced process troubleshooting techniques
  • How to reduce post selective soldering rework and increase yields

Topics Covered

  1. Fundamentals of Through-Hole Soldering
    • Capillary action and through-hole vertical fill
    • Solder joint formation and vertical force model
    • Component thermal mass differential and process parameters
    • Thermal processing and intermetallic layer formation
  2. Solderability
    • Oxidation layers and surface wetting
    • Zero force wetting time and bare board cleanliness
    • Post-soldering iconic contamination levels and dross abatement
    • Manual soldering and component re-tinning
  3. Solder Alloys
    • Tin-lead and lead-free alloys and surface wetting characteristics
    • Alloy characteristics and copper dissolution
    • Melting point and HMP alloys
    • Solder joint and solder pot temperature correlation
  4. Flux Deposition and Flux Activation
    • Liquid flux chemistries and thermal aspects of flux activation
    • Preheat temperature and typical thermal profile
    • Time-temperature limitations
    • No-clean thermal processing and mitigation of flux residues
  5. Thermal Profiling
    • Thermal transfer characteristics
    • Thermocouple location selection criteria
    • Instrumentation techniques and preheating methodologies
    • Preheat selection and sustained preheat
  1. Through-Hole Design Guidelines
    • Lead-to-hole aspect ratio and lead projection
    • Lead pitch and DFMA guidelines
    • Aperture pallet design guidelines and critical keep-out areas
    • Interlayer construction, ground planes and thermal relief design rules
  2. Quality Measurement
    • Solder joint inspection criteria
    • Post-soldering inspection protocols and inspection methodologies
    • Pareto analysis of defect type
    • Defect frequency and location
  3. Troubleshooting Guideline
    • Defect condition and root cause analysis
    • TH solder defect cause and effect matrix
    • Defect resolution
    • Prevention of re-occurrence
  4. Process Optimization
    • Optimization of process parameters
    • DPMO and OFD quality measurement
    • DoE methodologies and validation run
    • Defect mapping techniques
  5. Preventative Maintenance
    • Maintenance procedures, practices and frequency
    • Solder nozzle maintenance
    • Solder alloys contamination levels
  1. Through-Hole Design Guidelines
    • Lead-to-hole aspect ratio and lead projection
    • Lead pitch and DFMA guidelines
    • Aperture pallet design guidelines and critical keep-out areas
    • Interlayer construction, ground planes and thermal relief design rules
  2. Quality Measurement
    • Solder joint inspection criteria
    • Post-soldering inspection protocols and inspection methodologies
    • Pareto analysis of defect type
    • Defect frequency and location
  3. Troubleshooting Guideline
    • Defect condition and root cause analysis
    • TH solder defect cause and effect matrix
    • Defect resolution
    • Prevention of re-occurrence
  4. Process Optimization
    • Optimization of process parameters
    • DPMO and OFD quality measurement
    • DoE methodologies and validation run
    • Defect mapping techniques
  5. Preventative Maintenance
    • Maintenance procedures, practices and frequency
    • Solder nozzle maintenance
    • Solder alloys contamination levels

About the Instructor

Bob Klenke is a consultant to the printed circuit board assembly industry and a staff member of ITM Consulting with more than 30 years of electronic assembly experience. His area of responsibility includes working with OEM's and CEM’s to solve assembly problems and optimize operations. He has over 18 years of direct hands-on experience with selective soldering technology and is a frequent workshop instructor for selective soldering and wave soldering courses at APEX and SMTA International conferences. His expertise includes process optimization, process troubleshooting and value-added defect resolution strategies. Bob also holds the position of Managing Director with ITM Marketing, a full-service technical marketing and market research firm serving the electronics assembly industry.

Handout Materials

Each person who attends the MasteringSelective Soldering Processing and Manufacturability workshop will receive hardcopies of:

  • PDF copy of 222-page PowerPoint presentation suitable for course note taking
  • 38-page Selective Soldering Process Manual and Manufacturability Guideline booklet
  • Through-Hole Soldering Troubleshooting Guide laminated and suitable as quick reference guide